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  自然生態 Nature  
 
Jenny E. Ross

美國
自然生態 單幅 第一名

七月底,在俄羅斯新地群島北部的Ostrova Oranskie小島鄰近海域,有一頭年輕的北極熊爬上臨海的峭壁,試圖想吃布氏海鳩巢中的鳥蛋填飽肚子,但最後沒有成功。此處位於俄羅斯北極國家公園內,該公園涵蓋了北極海中4萬6千平方公里的島嶼和海域,是北半球面積最大的動植物保護區之一。北極熊主要獵取海豹為食,因為海豹身上肥厚的脂肪足以供應北極熊所需的大量體力。北極熊在海冰平台上捕食海豹,也利用浮冰作為移動工具。當大部分的海冰在夏季融化時,北極熊就有可能找不到地方棲息,也必須更努力尋找食物來源。由於北極熊的食物來源、行動工具和傳宗接代,都必須仰賴海冰平台,這也讓牠們更容易受到氣候暖化的影響。2011年的北極海冰量是1979-2010年平均紀錄的三分之一。


Jenny E. Ross

USA
1st Prize Nature Singles

A young male polar bear climbs on a cliff face above the ocean at Ostrova Oranskie, in northern Novaya Zemlya, Russia, attempting unsuccessfully to feed on eggs from the nests of Brünnich’s guillemots, in early July. The location falls within the Russkaya Arktika National Park, covering more than 46,000 square kilometers of islands and sea in the Arctic Ocean, one of the largest protected areas in the northern hemisphere. A polar bear’s primary prey is the seal, the blubber satisfying the bear’s enormous energy needs. Bears hunt seals from sea-ice platforms, and also use ice floes to move from place to place. In summer months, when much sea ice melts, polar bears can become stranded, and have to forage for what food they can. Their dependence on sea-ice platforms for food, traveling, and also for breeding, makes polar bears vulnerable to the effects of climate warming. In 2011, the volume of Arctic sea ice was 66 percent lower than the average documented from 1979 through 2010.

Brent Stirton

南非,Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic magazine
自然生態 系列報導 第一名

雖然全球都禁止買賣犀牛角,但當亞洲的中產階級晉身新富而開始有能力負擔這項昂貴的物品後,犀牛角的需求也隨之暴增。政府通常對非法的犀牛角貿易視而不見。人們將犀牛角當成清熱解毒的藥品。犀牛角的價格更勝黃金,犀牛也成為盜獵者的目標並面臨絕種的危險。


Brent Stirton

South Africa, Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic magazine
1st Prize Nature Stories

Despite the fact that rhinoceros horn is illegal worldwide, demand is rising steeply as a newly wealthy Asian middle class is able to afford the prized substance. Authorities often turn a blind eye to illegal trade in rhino horn, which is used as an anti-fever and anti-toxin medication. With rhinoceros horn worth more than gold, the animals are targets of poachers, and face extinction.