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儲永誌

中國
自然生態 單幅 第一名

在中國東部城市蘇州,一頭接受馬戲團動作訓練的恆河猴(又名普通獼猴)在訓練師走向牠時蜷縮著身體。馬戲團和動物園的動物表演在中國十分流行。經過動物福利團體多年來的施壓,中國政府已下令禁止動物進行馬戲表演,並實施規定不得在國營動物園有虐待行為。但許多訓練師表示他們從未聽聞此項禁令,也沒有任何取消的意願。蘇州有三百多個馬戲團,被喻為中國的馬戲之都。當地政府已宣布計畫開發沒有動物表演的替代性馬戲娛樂。


Yongzhi Chu

China
1st Prize Nature Singles

A rhesus macaque cowers as its trainer approaches, while training for a circus act, in Suzhou, eastern China. Performing animals in circuses and zoos are enormously popular in China. After years of pressure from animal-welfare groups, the Chinese government has banned animal circuses, and implemented regulations to stop abuse at state-owned zoos, but many trainers say they have not heard of the ban, nor have any intention of stopping. Authorities in Suzhou, which with its 300 troupes is known as the hometown of circus in China, have announced plans for developing alternative circus entertainment, without performing animals.

Ami Vitale

美國
自然生態 單幅 第二名

在肯亞北部的Lewa野生動物保護區,一群年輕的桑布魯族戰士有生以來第一次摸到黑犀牛。黑犀牛在肯亞幾乎絕種,這頭幼犀牛在母親遭到盜獵者殺害後成為孤兒,在這個保護區被飼養長大。大部分的肯亞人都沒有機會看到生活在他們周遭的野生動物,尤其在如此近的距離內。人們的注意力大多放在盜獵對於野生動物的影響,很少將重心放在原住民社群身上,但其實他們身處盜獵者和武裝野生動物守衛員衝突的第一線。


Ami Vitale

USA
2nd Prize Nature Singles

A group of young Samburu warriors touch a black rhino for the first time in their lives, at the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, in northern Kenya. Black rhinos are almost extinct in Kenya. This young calf had been orphaned when poachers killed its mother, and was hand-raised at Lewa. Most people in Kenya never get the opportunity to see the wildlife living around them, especially at such close quarters. Attention is often given to the effect of poaching on wildlife, but there is little focus on indigenous communities, who are on the frontline in the clash between poachers and armed game wardens.

Anand Varma

美國,for National Geographic magazine
自然生態 系列報導 第一名

許多寄生生物不但從宿主身上攝取養分,似乎也操控宿主的行為以利自身。一些寄生生物的基因看起來好像能控制宿主的大腦。

一條棘頭蟲的幼蟲入侵一隻細小的端足類動物後,驅使其從原本棲息的湖泊或池塘底部游向水面。這會讓端足類動物有被水鳥捕食的危險,但棘頭蟲只能在水鳥的腸子中發育為成蟲。

鐵線蟲的幼蟲入侵陸生的家蟋蟀,並在其體內成長。鐵線蟲的成蟲階段生活在水中。當鐵線蟲發育成熟後,能改變蟋蟀的腦部,讓牠就近跳入水中。蟋蟀溺死的同時,鐵線蟲便可隨之回到水中。

寄生性線蟲會讓宿主樹棲螞蟻的腹部變為深紅色,看起來就像是一顆成熟的莓果,能吸引鳥類前來啄食。線蟲還會使螞蟻在行走時高舉腹部,作好被鳥類吃掉的準備。

殭屍螞蟻菌類能進入亞馬遜螞蟻的腦內,強迫其離開森林地面,爬到樹上。之後,寄生的菌類會殺死螞蟻,菌柄從螞蟻屍體中長出,向地面散播孢子,感染更多的螞蟻。


Anand Varma

USA, for National Geographic magazine
1st Prize Nature Stories

Many parasites not only feed off their hosts, but appear to manipulate the host's behavior to the parasite's advantage. Certain parasite genes seem to be able to take control of the host's brain.

The larva of a thorny-headed worm invades a tiny amphipod that lives at the bottom of lakes and ponds, and causes it to swim to the surface, where it is prey to waterfowl. Thorny-headed worms can grow to maturity only in the gut of waterfowl.

Larvae of horsehair worms infiltrate terrestrial house crickets, and grow inside them. The adult stage of the worm's lifecycle is aquatic. When the worm is mature, it alters the cricket's brain, causing it to leap into the nearest body of water. As the cricket drowns, the mature worm emerges.

A parasitic nematode that invades the arboreal ant turns its host's abdomen maroon, mimicking a ripe berry attractive to birds, and induces the ant to walk with its abdomen raised, ready for the picking.

The Ophiocordyceps fungus penetrates the brain of an Amazonian ant, compelling it to leave the forest floor and scale a nearby tree. There, fungal stalks burst from the ant's husk and scatter spores onto ants below.