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世界新聞攝影展2020
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Daniele Volpe

義大利
長期專題 第三名
伊西爾種族滅絕
在1980年代,瓜地馬拉內戰中(1960-1996),政府軍將所有瑪雅原住民視為游擊隊的支持者,而居住在瓜地馬拉西部庫丘瑪塔內斯山脈附近的伊西爾瑪雅社群被政府視為種族滅絕的目標。伊西爾人成為計畫性強暴、強制驅逐、斷糧和屠殺的受害者。直至1996年,造成至少七千位伊西爾人死亡。在1979至1985年間,繼任的執政者祭出了焦土政策。村莊遭到燒毀,並使得60%的伊西爾人口逃難至山區。慘遭軍隊殺害的人們被埋葬於隱密的萬人塚,而逃離至偏遠山區的倖存者則因為缺乏衛生保健的資源而死於營養不良或本可治癒的疾病。

遺體挖掘在這場大屠殺蒐證中扮演了要角,此舉也讓倖存者面對自己的傷痛,終能將他們的至親莊嚴地安葬。攝影師在瓜地馬拉居住了13年,在擔任「歷史記憶復甦」計畫志工期間,他聆聽了關於瓜地馬拉人民的許多故事。他希望這項攝影計畫能使該國的歷史記憶更加完整,並成為瓜地馬拉人民謹記這段歷史的媒介。

2013年4月16日,社區成員在塞蘇斯卡普參與挖掘的工作。


Daniele Volpe

Italy
Long-Term Projects 3rd Prize
Ixil Genocide
During the 1980s, in the midst of the 1960–1996 Guatemalan Civil War, the state-backed military identified all indigenous Maya peoples as guerilla supporters. The Ixil Maya community, who live near the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes in western Guatemala, were the targets of a genocide operation. The Ixil were subject to systematic rape, forced displacement, starvation and massacre. By 1996, some 7,000 Ixil had been killed. Between 1979 and 1985, successive administrations pursued a scorched-earth policy. Villages were burnt to the ground and 60% of the Ixil population fled to the mountains. Victims of the military were often buried in clandestine mass graves, while many survivors in mountain areas, isolated from health care, died from malnutrition and treatable diseases. Exhumations play an important role in gathering evidence of civilian massacres and in reconciling survivors with their grief, as they are at last able to give their loved ones a dignified burial. The photographer has lived in Guatemala for 13 years and worked as a volunteer with the Recuperation of Historical Memory project, listening to the stories of Guatemalan people. He sees this photo project as his contribution to fortifying the historical memory of the country, as a tool for Guatemalan people so they do not forget.

Members of the community attend an exhumation in Xe’Xuxcap, on 16 April 2013.